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Patent Analysis of

MATERIAL, ARTICLE, AND METHOD FOR FORMING ARTICLE WITH TUNGSTEN SEMICARBIDE

Updated Time 15 March 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

EP3342529A1

Application Number

EP2017205765

Application Date

06 December 2017

Publication Date

04 July 2018

Current Assignee

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY

Original Assignee (Applicant)

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY

International Classification

B23K35/30,B23K35/32,B23K35/02,C22C29/00,C22C29/08

Cooperative Classification

B23K35/327,B22F3/115,B23K35/0244,B23K35/30,B23K35/304

Inventor

CHIKKABIKKODU HANUM, SATHISHA,MATHEW, PAUL,BISWAS, RITWIK,CALLA, EKLAVYA,DASAN, BIJU,ANAND, KRISHNAMURTHY

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

MATERIAL, ARTICLE, AND METHOD FOR FORMING ARTICLE WITH TUNGSTEN SEMICARBIDE MATERIAL, ARTICLE, AND METHOD FOR FORMING ARTICLE WITH TUNGSTEN SEMICARBIDE MATERIAL, ARTICLE, AND METHOD FOR FORMING ARTICLE WITH TUNGSTEN SEMICARBIDE
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Abstract

A material (200) is disclosed including a matrix (202) and a plurality of particles (204) dispersed in the matrix (202). The plurality of particles (204) include a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) constituting at least about 30 vol% of the plurality of particles (204). An article (100) is disclosed including the material (200). A method for forming the article (100) is disclosed, including applying the material (200). Applying the material (200) includes forming the matrix (202) and dispersing a plurality of particles (204) including a plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208) in the matrix (202). The plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208) are at least partially decarburized, transforming at least a portion of the tungsten carbide particles (208) into a plurality of the tungsten semicarbide particles (206) such that the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) constitute at least about 30 vol% of the plurality of particles (204).

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Claims

1. A material (200), comprising:

a matrix (202); and

a plurality of particles (204) dispersed in the matrix (202), the plurality of particles (204) including a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206),

wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) constitutes at least 30 vol% of the plurality of particles (204).

2. The material (200) as claimed in claim 1, wherein the plurality of particles (204) consists essentially of the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) and a plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208).

3. The material (200) as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) includes an essentially spheroidal conformation (210).

4. The material (200) as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) constitutes at least 75 vol% of the plurality of particles (204).

5. The material (200) as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the matrix (202) includes a matrix (202) material selected from the group consisting of cobalt, cobalt-chromium alloys, nickel-chromium alloys, nickel-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, cobalt-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, iron-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, Hadfield steel alloys, and combinations thereof.

6. An article (100), comprising:

a material (200), the material (200) including:

a matrix (202); and

a plurality of particles (204) dispersed in the matrix (202), the plurality of particles (204) including a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206),

wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) constitutes at least 30 vol% of the plurality of particles (204).

7. The article (100) as claimed in claim 6, wherein the plurality of particles (204) consists essentially of the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) and a plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208).

8. The article (100) as claimed in claim 6 or 7, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) includes an essentially spheroidal conformation (210).

9. The article (100) as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 8, wherein the article (100) is a grinding article, and the article (100) includes a grinding surface (212) formed by the material (200).

10. The article (100) as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 9, wherein the article (100) includes a substrate (300), and the material (200) forms a layer disposed on the substrate (300).

11. The article (100) as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 10, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) includes a maximum particle size of less than 10 µm.

12. A method for forming an article (100), comprising:

applying a material (200), including:

forming a matrix (202); and

dispersing a plurality of particles (204) in the matrix (202), the plurality of particles (204) including a plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208);

at least partially decarburizing the plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208), transforming at least a portion of the plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208) into a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) such that the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) constitutes at least 30 vol% of the plurality of particles (204).

13. The method as claimed in claim 12, wherein transforming at least the portion of the tungsten carbide particles (208) into the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) includes forming the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) having an essentially spheroidal conformation (210).

14. The method as claimed in claim 12 or 13, wherein forming the matrix (202) and dispersing the plurality of particles (204) in the matrix (202) includes thermally spraying the matrix (202) and the plurality of particles (204).

15. The method as claimed in any one of claims 12 to 14, further including heat treating following applying the material (200), wherein heat treating at least partially decarburizes the plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208).

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A material (200), comprising
    • a matrix (202)
    • and a plurality of particles (204) dispersed in the matrix (202), the plurality of particles (204) including a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206), wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) constitutes at least 30 vol% of the plurality of particles (204).
    • 2. The material (200) as claimed in claim 1, wherein
      • the plurality of particles (204) consists essentially of the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) and a plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208).
    • 3. The material (200) as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein
      • the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) includes an essentially spheroidal conformation (210).
    • 4. The material (200) as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein
      • the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) constitutes at least 75 vol% of the plurality of particles (204).
    • 5. The material (200) as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein
      • the matrix (202) includes a matrix (202) material selected from the group consisting of
  • 6
    6. An article (100), comprising
    • a material (200), the material (200) including: a matrix (202)
    • and a plurality of particles (204) dispersed in the matrix (202), the plurality of particles (204) including a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206), wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) constitutes at least 30 vol% of the plurality of particles (204).
    • 7. The article (100) as claimed in claim 6, wherein
      • the plurality of particles (204) consists essentially of the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) and a plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208).
    • 8. The article (100) as claimed in claim 6 or 7, wherein
      • the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) includes an essentially spheroidal conformation (210).
    • 9. The article (100) as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 8, wherein
      • the article (100) is a grinding article, and the article (100) includes a grinding surface (212) formed by the material (200).
    • 10. The article (100) as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 9, wherein
      • the article (100) includes a substrate (300), and the material (200) forms a layer disposed on the substrate (300).
    • 11. The article (100) as claimed in any one of claims 6 to 10, wherein
      • the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) includes a maximum particle size of less than 10 µm.
  • 12
    12. A method for forming an article (100), comprising
    • applying a material (200), including: forming a matrix (202)
    • and dispersing a plurality of particles (204) in the matrix (202), the plurality of particles (204) including a plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208)
    • at least partially decarburizing the plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208), transforming at least a portion of the plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208) into a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) such that the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) constitutes at least 30 vol% of the plurality of particles (204).
    • 13. The method as claimed in claim 12, wherein
      • transforming at least the portion of the tungsten carbide particles (208) into the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) includes forming the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles (206) having
    • 14. The method as claimed in claim 12 or 13, wherein
      • forming the matrix (202) and dispersing the plurality of particles (204) in the matrix (202) includes thermally spraying the matrix (202) and the plurality of particles (204).
    • 15. The method as claimed in any one of claims 12 to 14, further including
      • heat treating following applying the material (200), wherein heat treating at least partially decarburizes the plurality of tungsten carbide particles (208).
See all 3 independent claims

Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to materials, articles, and methods for forming articles. More particularly, the present invention is directed to materials, articles, and methods for forming articles having tungsten semicarbide.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Tungsten carbide is used industrially due to its high hardness and toughness, which may be beneficial properties for any number of uses. Bulk tungsten carbide, typically includes at least two chemical species of tungsten and carbon, actual tungsten carbide (WC) and tungsten semicarbide (W2C). Bulk tungsten carbide typically includes about 5 vol% to about 10 vol% tungsten semicarbide and about 90 vol% to about 95 vol% actual tungsten carbide. Due to the typically low presence of tungsten semicarbide, the presence of this species is often ignored, particularly as a matter of nomenclature. As such, herein, tungsten carbide is used exclusively to refer to WC, tungsten semicarbide is used exclusively to refer to W2C, and mixtures of the two are referenced as bulk tungsten carbide. Also, tungsten carbide is known for its high hardness, tungsten semicarbide is actually the harder of the two species. However, tungsten semicarbide is also more brittle than tungsten carbide, which has limited the industrial uses of tungsten semicarbide.

Coal crusher rolls are used to crush coal which is fed to a boiler for producing steam, reducing the size of the coal units from about 20 mm to about 200 mesh size. During the crushing process, the grinding surfaces of the coal crusher rolls become worn due to the inherent abrasive nature of the coal which is being crushed. Coals which have elevated ash content are typically more abrasive than coals with lower ash content, and may cause faster erosion of the grinding surfaces of the coal crusher roles, both by attrition and wear from the crushing loads applied on the coal crusher rolls. Further degradation of the coal crusher rolls may be caused by contaminants in the coal supply such as iron and stone, which may cause sudden impacts when introduced into the coal crusher.

Additionally, during production or operation of coal crusher rolls, cracks may form, either in coatings applied to a substrate of the coal crusher rolls or in the substrates of the coal crusher rolls. The presence of such cracks, either in the substrates or in the coatings applied to the substrates, may increase the rates of attrition and wear during coal crushing operations. Coal crusher rolls may be encased in sinter-cast materials to extend the useful life, but such solutions are expensive and are limited in the increase in useful life they provide.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In an exemplary embodiment, a material includes a matrix and a plurality of particles dispersed in the matrix. The plurality of particles includes a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles constituting at least about 30 vol% of the plurality of particles.

In another exemplary embodiment, an article includes a material including a matrix and a plurality of particles dispersed in the matrix. The plurality of particles includes a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles constituting at least about 30 vol% of the plurality of particles.

In another exemplary embodiment, a method for forming an article includes applying a material. Applying the material includes forming a matrix and dispersing a plurality of particles in the matrix. The plurality of particles includes a plurality of tungsten carbide particles. The plurality of tungsten carbide particles is at least partially decarburized, transforming at least a portion of the plurality of tungsten carbide particles into a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles such that the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles constitutes at least about 30 vol% of the plurality of particles.

Other features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following more detailed description of the preferred embodiment, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an article, according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.FIG. 2 is a sectional view along lines 2-2 of the article of FIG. 1 wherein the article consists of a material, according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.FIG. 3 is a sectional view along lines 3-3 of the article of FIG. 1 wherein the article includes a material disposed on a substrate, according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.FIG. 4 is a perspective view of an assembly including an article having a material, according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Wherever possible, the same reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings to represent the same parts.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Provided are exemplary materials, articles, and methods for forming the articles. Embodiments of the present disclosure, in comparison to articles and methods not utilizing one or more features disclosed herein, decrease costs, increase process efficiency, increase durability, increase reliability, increase service lifetime, decrease erosion, decrease wear, or a combination thereof.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, in one embodiment, an article 100 includes a material 200. The material 200 includes a matrix 202 and a plurality of particles 204 dispersed in the matrix 202. The plurality of particles 204 includes a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206, and the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 constitutes at least about 30 vol% of the plurality of particles 204.

The plurality of particles 204 may be randomly dispersed in the matrix 202, multi-modally dispersed in the matrix 202, essentially uniformly dispersed in the matrix 202, uniformly dispersed in the matrix 202, dispersed in the matrix 202 per a predetermined pattern, or combinations thereof. As used herein, "multi-modally dispersed" indicates a region having a greater concentration and a region having a lesser concentration, and "essentially uniformly dispersed" indicates a variance in concentration of less than about 20%, alternatively, less than about 15%, alternatively less than about 10%, alternatively less than about 5%, alternatively less than about 1%. "Multi-modally dispersed" further may refer to the distribution of different sizes within the plurality of particles 204.

In one embodiment, the plurality of particles 204 is dispersed in the matrix 202 at a density (average, by weight) of at least about 50%, alternatively at least about 55%, alternatively at least about 60%, alternatively at least about 65%, alternatively at least about 75%, alternatively at least about 80%, alternatively at least about 85%, alternatively at least about 90%, alternatively between about 50% to about 99%, alternatively between about 60% to about 95%, alternatively between about 75% to about 94%, alternatively between about 85% to about 93%, alternatively between about 90% to about 95%, alternatively about 93%.

In addition to the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206, the plurality of particles 204 may include a plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208. Tungsten carbide may include both α-W2C and β-W2C in any suitable proportions. In one embodiment, the plurality of particles 204 consists essentially of the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 and the plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208, excluding up to about 5 wt% impurities and decarburization products, alternatively up to about 2 wt%, alternatively up to about 1 wt%, alternatively up to about 0.5 wt%, alternatively up to about 0.1 wt%. In a further embodiment, the plurality of particles 204 consists of the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 and the plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208. The plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 and the plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208 may, independently, include particles having mixtures of tungsten carbide and tungsten semicarbide, or may include particles having subparticles of tungsten carbide and subparticles of tungsten semicarbide, wherein the subparticles are fused or adhered together, provided that such multiphase arrangements are considered as separate particles for purposes of determining volume percent of tungsten carbide and tungsten semicarbide. In one embodiment, such multiphase arrangements constitute less than about 10 vol% of the plurality of particles 204, alternatively less than about 5 vol%, alternatively less than about 2 vol%, alternatively less than about 1 vol%, alternatively less than about 0.5 vol%, alternatively less than about 0.1 vol%.

The plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 may include any suitable particle size. In one embodiment, the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 includes a maximum particle size of less than about 50 µm, alternatively less than about 250 µm, alternatively less than about 10 µm, alternatively less than about 5 µm, alternatively less than about 1 µm, alternatively less than about 0.5 µm, alternatively less than about 0.1 µm. In another embodiment, the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 includes a particle size distribution (normal distribution) of between about 1 nm to about 25 µm, alternatively between about 5 nm to about 10 µm, alternatively between about 10 nm to about 5 µm, alternatively between about 20 nm to about 1 µm.

In one embodiment, the material 200 may include a plurality of additional particles (not shown). The plurality of additional particles may be intermixed with the plurality of particles 204 and dispersed in the matrix 202, and may include a plurality of ceramic particles. Suitable ceramic particles may include, but are not limited to, metal carbides, metal borides, metal oxides, boron nitrides, boron carbides, boron carbon nitrides, zirconia toughened aluminas, silicon carbides, silicon nitrides, silicon oxy-nitrides, silicon aluminum oxy-nitrides, or combinations thereof. The plurality of additional particles may include any suitable particle size distribution, including, but not limited to, a particle size distribution of up to about 10 nm, alternatively up to about 20 nm, alternatively up to about 25 nm, alternatively up to about 10 mm, alternatively up to about 20 mm, alternatively up to about 25 mm, alternatively from about 1 nm to about 25 mm, alternatively from about 1 nm to about 25 nm, alternatively from about 1 mm to about 25 mm. In one embodiment, the plurality of additional particles includes fine particles having a fine particle size distribution up to about 25 nm, and coarse particles having a coarse particle size distribution from about 1 mm to about 25 mm, the fine particles and the coarse particles being intermixed. The intermixed fine particles coarse particles may be distributed to optimize protection against erodent abrasive particles having different sizes. The fine particles may also fill in gaps in the plurality of particles 204, thereby enhancing the resistance of the plurality of additional particles to erosion and abrasion.

The plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 may include any suitable conformation including, but not limited to conformations having a reduced occurrence of orthogonal facets relative to a cuboid conformation. In one embodiment, the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 includes an essentially spheroidal conformation 210. As used herein, "essentially spheroidal" indicates that substantial deviations from a perfect sphere or spheroid are contemplated provided that the overall conformation approximates a sphere or spheroid. Without being bound by theory, it is believed that an essentially spheroidal conformation, having reduced orthogonal and acute facets in comparison to a cuboidal conformation, reduces the susceptibility of the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 to fracture, thereby decreasing brittleness and increasing toughness of the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206.

The plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 may constitute any suitable proportion of the plurality of particles 204. In one embodiment, the tungsten semicarbide particles 206 constitute at least 30 vol% of the plurality of particles 204, alternatively at least about 40 vol%, alternatively at least about 50 vol%, alternatively at least about 60 vol%, alternatively at least about 70 vol%, alternatively at least about 75 vol%, alternatively at least about 80 vol%, alternatively at least about 85 vol%, alternatively about 90 vol%, alternatively up to about 90 vol%, alternatively between about 40 vol% to about 95 vol%, alternatively between about 45 vol% to about 92 vol%, alternatively between about 50 vol% to about 90 vol%.

The matrix 202 may include any suitable matrix material, including, but not limited to cobalt, cobalt-chromium alloys, nickel-chromium alloys, nickel-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, cobalt-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, iron-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, Hadfield steel alloys, or combinations thereof.

The article 100 may be any suitable article, including, but not limited to, a grinding article, a grinding roll 102, a coal grinding roll, a gas turbine component, a gas turbine transition piece, a gas turbine liner, a gas turbine liner stop, a gas turbine bully horn, a gas turbine blade (bucket), a gas turbine blade (bucket) tip, a gas turbine shroud, a gas turbine inner shroud, a coal feed pump rotor, a coal feed pump outlet pipe, a cutting tool, a mining drill bit, a rub-resistant abradable article tip, a pump dry seal, or combinations thereof. In one embodiment, wherein the article 100 is a grinding article, the article 100 includes a grinding surface 212 formed by the material 200.

Referring to FIG. 2, in one embodiment, the article 100 consists essentially of the material 200, excluding any coatings disposed on the article 100. In a further embodiment, the article 100 consists of the material 200.

Referring to FIG. 3, in another embodiment, the article 100 includes a substrate 300, and the material 200 forms a layer 302 disposed on the substrate 300. The substrate 300 may include any suitable substrate material 304, including, but not limited to chrome-iron alloy including, by weight, at least about 30% chrome, cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, white cast iron, cast iron including niobium, cast iron including chromium, cast iron including titanium, iron alloy, steel, Hadfield steel, cast steel, locomotive wheel steel, or combinations thereof. The layer 302 may be disposed directly on a substrate surface 310 of the substrate 300 (shown), or there may be an intermediate layer (not shown) disposed between the layer 302 and the substrate 300. The intermediate layer may include any suitable coating-type, including, but not limited to, a bond coat, an abrasive coating, a grinding coating, a thermal barrier coating, an environmental barrier coating, a diffusion aluminide coating, or combinations thereof. Suitable bond coats include, but are not limited to, molybdenum, Ni-5Al, Ni-20Al, Ni-20Cr, MCrAlY (where M is nickel, cobalt, or iron), or combinations thereof.

The substrate 300 may include any suitable dimensions. In one embodiment, wherein the substrate 300 is a rotatable grinding article, such as, but not limited to, a grinding roll 102, the substrate may include any suitable substrate average diameter 306, including, but not limited to, a substrate average diameter 306 of between about 10 mm and about 3 m, alternatively between about 25 mm and about 2.5 m, alternatively between about 50 mm and about 2 m. The layer 302 may include any suitable layer thickness 308, including, but not limited to, a layer thickness 308 of between about 0.05 mm and about 50 mm, alternatively between about 0.1 mm and about 10 mm, alternatively between about 0.25 mm and about 5 mm, alternatively between about 0.5 mm and about 3 mm.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 4, the article 100 may be an independent component or the article 100 may be a component, such as a grinding roll 102, of a grinding apparatus 400, such as, but not limited to, a bowl mill, a ball and race mill, a drum and ball mill, a coal crusher, or combinations thereof.

Referring to FIGS. 1-3, in one embodiment, a method for forming an article 100 includes applying a material 200. Applying the material 200 includes forming the matrix 202 and dispersing the plurality of particles 204 in the matrix 202, wherein the plurality of particles 204 include a plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208. The plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208 are at least partially decarburized, transforming at least a portion of the plurality of the tungsten carbide particles 208 into the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206, such that the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 constitutes at least about 30 vol% of the plurality of particles 204.

Transforming at least the portion of the plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208 into the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 may include forming the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 having the essentially spheroidal conformation 210, or the plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208 may include the essentially spheroidal conformation 210 prior to the transforming of at least the portion of the plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208 into the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206. In one embodiment, the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206 are formed having the essentially spheroidal conformation 210 by controlling kinetics and surface activation energies during a thermal spray process, which, along with the thermal spray process itself, may bend, oxidize and dissolve sharp edges. Without being bound by theory, it is believed that oxidizing and dissolving sharp edges transforms the particles to become essentially spheroidal.

In one embodiment, forming the matrix 202 and dispersing the plurality of particles 204 in the matrix 202 includes thermally spraying the matrix and the plurality of particles. Any suitable thermal spray technique may be utilized, including, but not limited to, cored wire arc spraying, wire arc spraying, high velocity air fuel spraying, high velocity oxy-fuel spraying, air plasma spraying, twin wire arc spraying, cold spraying, or combinations thereof. In one embodiment, parameters used for forming tungsten semicarbide in a high velocity air fuel spraying process or a high velocity oxy-fuel spraying process include gas flows and ratios which promote higher temperature as well as elevated ratios of oxygen which may induce decarburization of tungsten carbide to tungsten semicarbide. The stoichiometry gas flow may follow the equation 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O, and the amount of oxygen may be controlled to control the amount of tungsten semicarbide formed. Higher amounts of oxygen and higher temperature may, independently, increase decarburization. In another embodiment, parameters for forming tungsten semicarbide in an air plasma spraying process may include increasing power and temperature to increase decarburization. In another embodiment, decarburization may be controlled by adjusting the particle feedstock size used for spraying. Without being bound by theory, it is believed that finer particle sizes decarburize more easily relative to coarser particle sizes, and so the amount of decarburization may be controlled by adjusting a mix of fine and coarse feedstock particles. In one embodiment, fine particles include a size of typically 1 µm or less, and coarse particles include a size of typically about 1 µm to about 5 µm

The method may further include heat treating following thermally spraying the plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208, wherein heat treating at least partially decarburizes the plurality of tungsten carbide particles 208, forming the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles 206. In one embodiment, heat treating may include a predetermined partial pressure of oxygen to control the phase of tungsten semicarbide formed during decarburization.

Referring to FIGS. 3 and 5, in one embodiment, the method for forming the article 100 includes applying the material 200 to a substrate 300. Referring to FIG. 5, in an embodiment wherein the substrate 300 includes at least one crack 500, the layer 302 may be at least partially disposed within the crack 500, sealing the crack 500. The layer 300 may form a treated surface 502 which is substantially flush with a substrate surface (FIG. 5), or the layer 300 may form a layer 302 which extends over at least a portion of the substrate surface 310 (FIG. 3). As used herein, "substantially flush" indicates that the treated surface 502 is neither elevated nor depressed relative to the substrate surface 310 where they meet by more than about 1 mm.

While the invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the invention without departing from the essential scope thereof. Therefore, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiment disclosed as the best mode contemplated for carrying out this invention, but that the invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.

Various aspects and embodiments of the present invention are defined by the following clauses:

1. A material, comprising: a matrix; and a plurality of particles dispersed in the matrix, the plurality of particles including a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles constitutes at least about 30 vol% of the plurality of particles.2. The material in accordance with clause 1, wherein the plurality of particles consists essentially of the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles and a plurality of tungsten carbide particles.3. The material in accordance with clause 1, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles includes an essentially spheroidal conformation.4. The material in accordance with clause 1, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles constitutes at least about 75 vol% of the plurality of particles.5. The material in accordance with clause 1, wherein the matrix includes a matrix material selected from the group consisting of cobalt, cobalt-chromium alloys, nickel-chromium alloys, nickel-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, cobalt-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, iron-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, Hadfield steel alloys, and combinations thereof.6. An article, comprising: a material, the material including: a matrix; and a plurality of particles dispersed in the matrix, the plurality of particles including a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles constitutes at least about 30 vol% of the plurality of particles.7. The article in accordance with clause 6, wherein the plurality of particles consists essentially of the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles and a plurality of tungsten carbide particles.8. The article in accordance with clause 6, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles includes an essentially spheroidal conformation.9. The article in accordance with clause 6, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles constitutes at least about 75 vol% of the plurality of particles.10. The article in accordance with clause 6, wherein the matrix includes a matrix material selected from the group consisting of cobalt, cobalt-chromium alloys, nickel-chromium alloys, nickel-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, cobalt-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, iron-chromium-boron-silicon alloys, Hadfield steel alloys, and combinations thereof.11. The article in accordance with clause 6, wherein the article is a grinding article, and the article includes a grinding surface formed by the material.12. The article in accordance with clause 11, wherein the grinding article is selected from the group consisting of a coal grinding roll, a gas turbine component, a gas turbine transition piece, a gas turbine liner, a gas turbine liner stop, a gas turbine bully horn, a gas turbine blade (bucket), a gas turbine blade (bucket) tip, a gas turbine shroud, a gas turbine inner shroud, a coal feed pump rotor, a coal feed pump outlet pipe, a cutting tool, a mining drill bit, a rub-resistant abradable article tip, a pump dry seal, and combinations thereof.13. The article in accordance with clause 6, wherein the article includes a substrate, and the material forms a layer disposed on the substrate.14. The article in accordance with clause 12, wherein the substrate includes a substrate material selected from the group consisting of chrome-iron alloy including, by weight, at least about 30% chrome, cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, white cast iron, cast iron including niobium, cast iron including chromium, cast iron including titanium, iron alloy, steel, Hadfield steel, cast steel, locomotive wheel steel, or combinations thereof.15. The article in accordance with clause 6, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles includes a maximum particle size of less than about 10 µm.16. The article in accordance with clause 6, wherein the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles includes a particle size distribution of between about 10 nm to about 5 µm.17. A method for forming an article, comprising: applying a material, including: forming a matrix; and dispersing a plurality of particles in the matrix, the plurality of particles including a plurality of tungsten carbide particles; at least partially decarburizing the plurality of tungsten carbide particles, transforming at least a portion of the plurality of tungsten carbide particles into a plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles such that the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles constitutes at least about 30 vol% of the plurality of particles.18. The method in accordance with clause 17, wherein transforming at least the portion of the tungsten carbide particles into the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles includes forming the plurality of tungsten semicarbide particles having an essentially spheroidal conformation.19. The method in accordance with clause 17, wherein forming the matrix and dispersing the plurality of particles in the matrix includes thermally spraying the matrix and the plurality of particles.20. The method in accordance with clause 17, further including heat treating following applying the material, wherein heat treating at least partially decarburizes the plurality of tungsten carbide particles.

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Patent Valuation

32.0/100 Score

Market Attractiveness

It shows from an IP point of view how many competitors are active and innovations are made in the different technical fields of the company. On a company level, the market attractiveness is often also an indicator of how diversified a company is. Here we look into the commercial relevance of the market.

6.0/100 Score

Market Coverage

It shows the sizes of the market that is covered with the IP and in how many countries the IP guarantees protection. It reflects a market size that is potentially addressable with the invented technology/formulation with a legal protection which also includes a freedom to operate. Here we look into the size of the impacted market.

40.0/100 Score

Technology Quality

It shows the degree of innovation that can be derived from a company’s IP. Here we look into ease of detection, ability to design around and significance of the patented feature to the product/service.

85.0/100 Score

Assignee Score

It takes the R&D behavior of the company itself into account that results in IP. During the invention phase, larger companies are considered to assign a higher R&D budget on a certain technology field, these companies have a better influence on their market, on what is marketable and what might lead to a standard.

21.0/100 Score

Legal Score

It shows the legal strength of IP in terms of its degree of protecting effect. Here we look into claim scope, claim breadth, claim quality, stability and priority.

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