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Patent Analysis of

Integrated fuel gas characterization system

Updated Time 15 March 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US7854110

Application Number

US11/872154

Application Date

15 October 2007

Publication Date

21 December 2010

Current Assignee

SIEMENS ENERGY, INC.

Original Assignee (Applicant)

SIEMENS POWER GENERATION, INC.

International Classification

F02C9/00

Cooperative Classification

F02C3/22,F02C9/28,F05D2270/44,F05D2270/309,F05D2270/64

Inventor

LAGROW, MATTHEW J.,TEEHAN, DAMIEN G.,BRAHMASANDRA, CHANDRASHEKAR,VENKATARAGHAVAN, JANARTHANAN

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

Integrated fuel gas characterization system Integrated fuel gas characterization system Integrated fuel gas characterization system
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Abstract

A gas turbine engine that includes a compressor, a combustion stage, a turbine assembly, a fuel gas feed system for supplying fuel gas to a combustion stage of the gas turbine, and an integrated fuel gas characterization system. The integrated fuel gas feed system can include a buffer tank. The integrated fuel gas characterization system for determining the amount of energy provided by the fuel prior to combustion of the fuel in the combustion stage. The integrated fuel gas characterization system minimizes megawatt swings by adjusting the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine based on the rate of change in fuel gas energy content. The integrated fuel gas characterization system also provides improved turbine engine start-up reliability by tuning the turbine engine operating parameters using fuel gas energy content measurements obtained prior to actual start-up.

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Claims

1. A gas turbine engine, comprising: a compressor, a combustion stage and a turbine assembly; a fuel gas feed system for supplying fuel gas to the combustion stage of the gas turbine engine, wherein the fuel gas feed system comprises a buffer tank; andan integrated fuel gas characterization system, wherein the integrated fuel gas characterization system takes readings from fuel gas in the fuel gas feed system and comprises: a Wobbe meter for measuring a Wobbe Index of fuel gas before the fuel gas is combusted in the combustion stage, a gas chromatograph for measuring individual gas constituents in the fuel gas before the fuel gas is combusted in the combustion stage, and a control system for adjusting at least one operating parameter of the gas turbine engine based on the rate of change of the Wobbe Index, the individual gas constituents, or both, as determined by the control system, wherein the integrated fuel gas characterization system proactively adjusts the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine during a dynamic fuel event.

2. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein the integrated fuel gas characterization system takes readings of the fuel gas upstream of the buffer tank.

3. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein the at least one operating parameter adjusted by the control system is selected from the group consisting of megawatt controller gain value, megawatt controller reset value, exhaust temperature controller gain value, exhaust temperature controller reset value, blade path temperature controller gain value, blade path temperature controller reset value, ignition fuel mass flow setpoint value, fuel gas distribution among combustion stages, combustor fuel stage throttle valve ignition lifts, and a combination thereof.

4. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein a capacity of the buffer tank is large enough that an average residence time of fuel gas fed through the buffer tank when the gas turbine is operating at full load is sufficient for the integrated fuel gas characterization system to take readings from the fuel gas and adjust the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine at or before a time when sampled fuel gas enters a combustion stage of the gas turbine engine.

5. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein a capacity of the buffer tank is large enough that an average residence time of fuel gas fed through the buffer tank when the gas turbine is operating at full load is at least five seconds.

6. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein the control system for determining the rate of change of the Wobbe Index, individual gas constituents, or both, calculates the rate of change using at least three readings from the Wobbe meter or the gas chromatograph.

7. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein the buffer tank is designed to facilitate mixing of fuel gas fed through the buffer tank.

8. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein the dynamic fuel event is a gas turbine engine start-up, or a change in the energy content of the fuel gas flowing through the fuel gas feed system.

9. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein the integrated fuel gas characterization system is designed to filter out transient spikes in a Wobbe Index of the fuel gas, the individual gas constituents in the fuel gas, or both.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A gas turbine engine, comprising:
    • a compressor, a combustion stage and a turbine assembly
    • a fuel gas feed system for supplying fuel gas to the combustion stage of the gas turbine engine, wherein the fuel gas feed system comprises a buffer tank
    • andan integrated fuel gas characterization system, wherein the integrated fuel gas characterization system takes readings from fuel gas in the fuel gas feed system and comprises: a Wobbe meter for measuring a Wobbe Index of fuel gas before the fuel gas is combusted in the combustion stage, a gas chromatograph for measuring individual gas constituents in the fuel gas before the fuel gas is combusted in the combustion stage, and a control system for adjusting at least one operating parameter of the gas turbine engine based on the rate of change of the Wobbe Index, the individual gas constituents, or both, as determined by the control system, wherein the integrated fuel gas characterization system proactively adjusts the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine during a dynamic fuel event.
    • 2. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein
      • the integrated fuel gas characterization system takes readings of the fuel gas upstream of the buffer tank.
    • 3. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein
      • the at least one operating parameter adjusted by the control system is selected from the group consisting of
    • 4. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein
      • a capacity of the buffer tank is large enough that an average residence time of fuel gas fed through the buffer tank when the gas turbine is operating at full load is sufficient for the integrated fuel gas characterization system to take readings from the fuel gas and adjust the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine at or before a time when sampled fuel gas enters a combustion stage of the gas turbine engine.
    • 5. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein
      • a capacity of the buffer tank is large enough that an average residence time of fuel gas fed through the buffer tank when the gas turbine is operating at full load is at least five seconds.
    • 6. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein
      • the control system for determining the rate of change of the Wobbe Index, individual gas constituents, or both, calculates the rate of change using at least three readings from the Wobbe meter or the gas chromatograph.
    • 7. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein
      • the buffer tank is designed to facilitate mixing of fuel gas fed through the buffer tank.
    • 8. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein
      • the dynamic fuel event is a gas turbine engine start-up, or a change in the energy content of the fuel gas flowing through the fuel gas feed system.
    • 9. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein
      • the integrated fuel gas characterization system is designed to filter out transient spikes in a Wobbe Index of the fuel gas, the individual gas constituents in the fuel gas, or both.
See all 1 independent claims

Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed generally to a fuel gas characterization system for operating a gas turbine engine, and more particularly for proactively adjusting operating parameters of the gas turbine engine during changes in fuel gas composition.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Much of the power generation capacity in North America is provided by gas-fired turbines. These gas-fired turbines are general optimized to operate using fuel gas with a constant energy content, i.e. Wobbe Index. Significant variations in fuel gas energy content can result in the need for an extended shut down of the gas-fired turbine while the turbine control systems are adjusted to operate using the new fuel gas.

Where the fuel gas energy content variations do not require shut down of the gas-fired turbine, the change in fuel gas energy content results in substantial megawatt load swings, engine overfiring, and increased emissions of undesirable pollutants, such as NOX and CO. This is because the majority of gas turbine engines are designed using feedback control systems. Thus, while turbine component manufacturers design turbine components to handle the extreme firing temperatures and loads experienced during design conditions, turbine component life can be reduced due to extreme temperatures or forced caused by overfiring, megawatt load swings, or both.

Where gas-fired turbine control systems are designed to accommodate fuel gas energy content changes, the control systems generally use feedback loops that analyze the temperature of gases exiting the turbine or the level of pollutants exiting the turbine. The amount of energy supplied by the fuel gas is then adjusted by heating or cooling the fuel gas or injecting an inert into the fuel gas. However, by the time the adjustment is made, the gas turbine engine has already experienced a megawatt load swing, which can damage turbine engine components. These prior art systems also generally fail to address operational issues including, but not limited to, increased combustor dynamics, increased flashback potential and reduced start-up reliability. Thus, a need exists for an improved gas-fired turbine engine.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention is drawn to a gas turbine engine that includes an integrated fuel gas characterization system with a buffer tank and a control system. The control system of the integrated fuel gas characterization system is a feed forward system that adjusts operating parameters of the gas turbine engine based on the absolute value of fuel gas properties, the rate of change of fuel gas properties, or both, as the fuel gas changes reaches the combustion chamber. In addition, the buffer tank, averages changes in fuel gas properties by facilitating mixing of fuel gas compositions and providing a buffer period for the control system to take the multiple readings to determine the rate of change of fuel gas properties. Thus, the integrated fuel gas characterization system can minimize or eliminate megawatt load swings experienced by the gas turbine engine, extending turbine component life and reducing other operational issues, such as the risk of flashback, engine overfiring, increased emissions, and exhaust stream temperature spikes.

The integrated fuel gas characterization system can also be used to improve start-up reliability. The control system of the integrated fuel gas characterization system stores earlier readings of the fuel gas composition, generally using the gas chromatograph and uses this data to adjust the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine before start-up. This approach significantly improves start-up reliability, particularly where the gas turbine engine uses a variety of fuels with different compositions.

In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to a gas turbine engine that can include a gas turbine, a fuel gas feed system for supplying fuel gas to a combustion stage of the gas turbine, and an integrated fuel gas characterization system. The gas turbine can include a compressor, a combustion stage and a turbine assembly. The integrated fuel gas feed system can include a buffer tank. The integrated fuel gas characterization system can take readings from fuel gas in the fuel gas feed system. The integrated fuel gas characterization system can include a Wobbe meter for measuring a Wobbe Index of fuel gas before the fuel gas is combusted in the gas turbine, a gas chromatograph for measuring individual gas constituents in the fuel gas before the fuel gas is combusted in the gas turbine, and a control system. The control system can be designed to adjust one or more operating parameters of the gas turbine engine based on the rate of change of the Wobbe Index, the individual gas constituents, or both, as determined by the control system.

The integrated fuel gas characterization system can proactively adjust the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine during a dynamic fuel event. The dynamic fuel event can be a gas turbine engine start-up or a change in the energy content of the fuel gas flowing through the fuel gas feed system. As used herein, “proactively” means that the operating parameter is adjusted prior to or concurrently with the arrival of the sampled fuel gas at the combustion stage.

The control system for determining the rate of change of the Wobbe Index, individual gas constituents, or both, can calculate the rate of change using at least three readings from the Wobbe meter or the gas chromatograph. The integrated fuel gas characterization system can include control logic to filter out transient spikes in a Wobbe Index of the fuel gas, the individual gas constituents in the fuel gas, or both.

The integrated fuel gas characterization system can take readings of the fuel gas upstream of the buffer tank. The at least one operating parameter that can be adjusted by the control system can be one or more of the following parameters: the megawatt controller gain value, megawatt controller reset value, exhaust temperature controller gain value, exhaust temperature controller reset value, blade path temperature controller gain value, blade path temperature controller reset value, ignition fuel mass flow setpoint value, pilot valve ignition lift, fuel gas distribution among combustion stages, and the combustor fuel stage throttle valve ignition lifts. As used herein, “combustor fuel stage” is meant to describe any combustor fuel stage including, but not limited to, pilot stages, diffusion stages, and premix stages.

The buffer tank can be designed to facilitate mixing of fuel gas fed through the buffer tank. The average residence time of fuel gas fed through the buffer tank when the gas turbine is operating at full load can be sufficient for the integrated fuel gas characterization system to take readings from the fuel gas and adjust the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine at or before a time when the sampled fuel gas enters a combustion stage of the gas turbine engine. The average residence time of fuel gas fed through the buffer tank when the gas turbine is operating at full load can be at least five seconds.

Another embodiment of the present invention is a method of operating a gas turbine engine during a dynamic fuel event. The method includes providing an integrated fuel gas characterization system that can include: devices for sampling the Wobbe Index, individual gas constituents, or both, and for adjusting at least one operating parameter of the gas turbine engine; sampling the Wobbe Index, individual gas constituents, or both, of fuel gas flowing through a sampling point of a fuel gas feed system, mixing fuel gas in a buffer tank, and adjusting at least one operating parameter of the gas turbine engine based on the rate of change of the Wobbe Index, the individual gas constituents, or both, as determined by the integrated fuel gas characterization system.

The integrated fuel gas characterization system can proactively adjust at least one operating parameter of the gas turbine engine during a dynamic fuel event. The operating parameters of the gas turbine engine adjusted during a dynamic fuel event can be adjusted to improve start-up reliability, minimize exhaust temperature spikes, minimize engine overfiring, minimize flashback, reduce emissions, avoid megawatt load swings, or a combination thereof.

The buffer tank can be positioned between the sampling point and the combustion stage of a turbine. The buffer tank can be used to reduce the rate of change in Wobbe Index and/or individual gas constituents of the fuel gas as compared to a gas turbine engine without a buffer tank.

The dynamic fuel event can be a gas turbine engine start-up, and the start-up settings of the gas turbine engine can be adjusted based on a fuel gas composition measured prior to start-up of the gas turbine engine. The dynamic fuel event can be a change in the energy content of the fuel gas flowing through the fuel gas feed system.

The method can also include the step of calibrating the Wobbe Index value using the individual gas constituent values measured using a gas chromatograph. The method can also include determining whether a measured reading of Wobbe Index and/or fuel gas constituent reading is a transient spike, and filtering out Wobbe Index and/or fuel gas constituent readings that are transient spikes. As used herein, “transient spike” is used to describe both temporary spikes in Wobbe Index or fuel gas constituent values of the fuel gas and individual Wobbe Index or fuel gas constituent readings that are not accurate due to bad quality signals produced by the Wobbe Meter.

An advantage of this invention is that it allows continuous operation of a gas turbine engine while the fuel gas composition changes with a reduced risk of: exhaust stream temperature spikes, engine overfiring, flashback, megawatt load swings, increased emissions, and unnecessary strain of turbine components. Another advantage of the invention is that it provides improved start-up reliability across a wide range of fuel gas compositions and energy content. Yet another advantage of the invention is that it provides proactive control of the operating parameters and mixing of the different fuel gas compositions to avoid substantial megawatt load swings and maintain safe operating conditions during dynamic fuel events. Another advantage of the invention is that it provides extended turbine component life, by reducing or eliminating occurrences of overfiring and megawatt load swings during dynamic fuel events.

These and other embodiments are described in more detail below.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and form a part of the specification, illustrate embodiments of the presently disclosed invention and, together with the description, disclose the principles of the invention.

FIG. 1 is a schematic of an embodiment of the inventive integrated fuel gas characterization system.

FIG. 2 is a schematic of another embodiment of the inventive integrated fuel gas characterization system that includes monitoring of emissions and combustor dynamics.

FIG. 3 is a schematic of an embodiment of the inventive integrated fuel gas characterization system that includes a steam supply and emissions monitoring.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

As shown in FIGS. 1-3, the invention is drawn to a gas turbine engine 10 that includes an integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 having a buffer tank 22 and a control system 28. The control system 28 of the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 is a proactive, or feed forward, system that adjusts operating parameters of the gas turbine engine 10 based on the rate of change of fuel gas 16 properties. The operating parameters can be adjusted at or before the time when the changes to the fuel gas 16 composition reach the combustion chamber 18. The buffer tank 22, can facilitate mixing of fuel gas 16 compositions so that fuel gas 16 compositional changes reach the gas turbine 12 gradually, rather than abruptly. The buffer tank 22 can also provide a buffer period sufficient for the control system 28 to take multiple readings of the fuel gas 16 composition and determine the rate of change of fuel gas 16 properties. The integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 utilizes the buffer tank 20 and the control system 28 to minimize or eliminate megawatt load swings experienced by the gas turbine engine 10, thereby extending turbine component life and reducing other operational issues, such as the risk of flashback, engine overfiring, increased emissions, and exhaust stream 38 temperature spikes.

The integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 also can improve start-up reliability. The control system 28 of the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 stores the most recent readings of the fuel gas 16 composition, generally using the gas chromatograph 26, and uses this data to adjust the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine 10 before start-up. This approach significantly improves start-up reliability, particularly where the gas turbine engine 10 uses a variety of fuels with different compositions.

The gas turbine engine 10 can include a gas turbine 12, a fuel gas feed system 14 for supplying fuel gas 16 to a combustion stage 18 of the gas turbine 12, and an integrated fuel gas characterization system 20. The core elements of the gas turbine 12 can include a compressor 17, a combustion stage 18, and a turbine assembly 19. The integrated fuel gas feed system 14 can include a buffer tank 22. The integrated fuel gas characterization system 14 can take readings from fuel gas 16 in the fuel gas feed system 14. The integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 can include a Wobbe meter 24 for measuring the Wobbe Index of fuel gas 16 before the fuel gas 16 is combusted in the gas turbine 12, a gas chromatograph 26 for measuring individual gas constituents in the fuel gas 16 before the fuel gas 16 is combusted in the gas turbine 12, and a control system 28. The control system 28 can be designed to adjust one or more operating parameters of the gas turbine engine 10 based on the rate of change of the Wobbe Index, the individual gas constituents, or both, as determined by the control system 28.

The integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 can proactively adjust the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine 10 during a dynamic fuel event. The dynamic fuel event can be a gas turbine engine 10 start-up, or a change in the energy content of the fuel gas 16 flowing through the fuel gas feed system 14. As used herein, “proactively” is used to describe operating parameter adjustments occur prior to or concurrently with the arrival of the sampled fuel gas 16 at the combustion stage 18.

The control system 28 for determining the rate of change of the Wobbe Index, individual gas constituents, or both, can calculate the rate of change using at least three readings from the Wobbe meter 24 or the gas chromatograph 26. The rate of change can be calculated using at least five readings or at least seven readings from the Wobbe meter 24 or the gas chromatograph 26. The integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 can include control logic to filter out transient spikes in a Wobbe Index of the fuel gas 16, the individual gas constituents in the fuel gas 16, or both.

Wobbe meter 24 and gas chromatograph 26 readings can be taken independently and intermittently. The period between readings can be at least 0.5 seconds, at least 1 second, at least 2 seconds, at least 5 seconds, or at least 10 seconds, or other time periods. The gas chromatograph 26 can be used to calibrate the Wobbe meter 24. In some instances, the period between gas chromatograph 26 readings can be at least two minutes, or at least five minutes, or at least ten minutes, or another time period.

The gas chromatograph 26 can also be used to obtain a highly accurate fuel gas 16 constituent measurement prior to gas turbine 12 start-up. A fuel gas 16 constituent measurement made prior to gas turbine 12 start-up is to be understood to include a measurement made during an earlier gas turbine 12 shut down, a measurement made immediately prior to start up of the gas turbine 12, and all times in between.

Alternately, fuel gas 16 constituent readings may be made using IR sensors. IR sensor data is more limited than that acquired using a gas chromatograph 26. However, gas chromatograph 26 measurements of fuel gas 16 constituents generally take significantly longer to obtain. Gas chromatograph 26 measurements of fuel gas 16 constituents can generally used to as a quality check on the Wobbe meter 24 and for evaluating the fuel gas 16 constituents prior to start up.

The integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 can take readings of the fuel gas 16 upstream of the buffer tank 22, at the entrance of the buffer tank 22, or in the buffer tank 22. The at least one operating parameter that can be adjusted by the control system 28 can be one or more of the megawatt controller gain value, megawatt controller reset value, exhaust temperature controller gain value, exhaust temperature controller reset value, blade path temperature controller gain value, blade path temperature controller reset value, ignition fuel mass flow setpoint value, fuel gas distribution among combustion stages 18, and combustor fuel stage throttle valve ignition lifts.

The buffer tank 22 can be designed to facilitate mixing of fuel gas 16 fed through the buffer tank 22. The capacity of the buffer tank 22 can be large enough that the average residence time of fuel gas 16 fed through the buffer tank 22 when the gas turbine 12 is operating at full load can be sufficient for the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 to take multiple readings from the fuel gas 16 and adjust the operating parameters of the gas turbine engine 10 at or before a time when sampled fuel gas 16 enters a combustion stage 18 of the gas turbine engine 10. For example, the capacity of the buffer tank 22 can be large enough that the average residence time may be sufficient to make at least three readings, or at least five readings, or even at least seven readings of the Wobbe Index or the fuel gas 16 constituents. The average residence time of fuel gas 16 fed through the buffer tank 22 when the gas turbine 12 is operating at full load can be at least five seconds, or at least ten seconds, or at least thirty seconds. These features of the buffer tank 22 can enable feed forward processing using rate of change in fuel gas 16 constituent values, which require multiple fuel gas 16 constituent readings to calculate.

In addition to the feed forward aspects of the present invention, which can serve to eliminate megawatt load swings and minimize exhaust stream 38 temperature spikes, the inventive gas turbine engine 10 can also include feedback elements, such as an active combustor dynamics monitoring (ACDM) system 32 or a continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) system 34.

As shown in FIG. 2, the ACDM system 32 can be used to evaluate the dynamics of the combustion stage 18. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the exhaust stream 36 from the turbine assembly 19 can be measured by a CEM system 34. The CEM system 34 can measure the exhaust stream 36 temperature or the amount of pollutants, e.g. NOX and CO, or both, in the exhaust stream 36 and feed this information back to the control system 28. The control system 28 algorithm can account for data from the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20, as well as, the ACDM system 32 and the CEM system 34.

In some embodiments, the control system 28 can also control the temperature of the fuel gas 16 entering the combustion stage 18, an amount of an inert media 38, e.g. steam, air or both, injected into the combustion stage 38, or both. At a given Wobbe Index, the actual amount of energy generated in the combustion stage 18 is, at least in part, a function of the temperature of the fuel gas 16 and any additional amount of inert media 38 entering the combustion stage 18. Thus, while not the primary means of controlling combustor dynamics relied upon by the invention, modifications to the temperature of the fuel gas entering the combustion stage 18 and the injection of inert media 38 into the combustion stage 18 can also be used to control combustor dynamics and emissions of the gas turbine engine 10.

Another embodiment of the present invention is a method of operating a gas turbine engine 10 during a dynamic fuel event. The method includes providing an integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 that can include: devices for sampling the Wobbe Index 24, individual gas constituents 26, or both 24, 26, and for adjusting at least one operating parameter of the gas turbine engine 10; sampling the Wobbe Index, individual gas constituents, or both, of fuel gas 16 flowing through a sampling point 30 of a fuel gas feed system 14; mixing fuel gas 16 in a buffer tank 22, and adjusting at least one operating parameter of the gas turbine engine 10 based on the rate of change of the Wobbe Index, the individual gas constituents, or both, as determined by the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20. The at least one operating parameter of the gas turbine engine 10 can also be adjusted based on the actual value of the Wobbe Index, the individual gas constituents, or both, as determined by the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20.

The integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 can proactively adjust the at least one operating parameter of the gas turbine engine 10 during a dynamic fuel event. The operating parameters of the gas turbine engine 10 adjusted during a dynamic fuel event can be adjusted to improve start-up reliability, minimize exhaust stream 38 temperature spikes, minimize engine overfiring, minimize flashback, reduce emissions, avoid megawatt load swings, or a combination thereof.

The buffer tank 22 can be positioned between the sampling point 30 and the combustion stage 18 of the gas turbine 12. The buffer tank 22 can be used to reduce the rate of change in Wobbe Index and/or individual gas constituents of the fuel gas 16 reaching the combustion chamber 18 as compared to a gas turbine engine 10 without a buffer tank 22.

The method can also include the step of calibrating the Wobbe Index value using the individual fuel gas 16 constituent values, wherein the individual fuel gas 16 constituent values are measured using a gas chromatograph 26. The method can also include determining whether a measured reading of Wobbe Index, fuel gas constituents, or both, is a transient spike, and filtering out Wobbe Index, fuel gas constituent readings, or both, that are transient spikes.

The present invention can be used to provide improved gas turbine 12 start-up reliability for fuel gas 16 with a wide variety of Wobbe Indexes and individual gas constituents by proactively adjusting gas turbine 12 operating parameters. Because the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 adjusts the operating parameters of the gas turbine 12 based on fuel gas 16 constituent readings of the fuel gas 16 in the fuel gas feed system 14 before start-up, the start-up reliability of the gas turbine is significantly improved. This is particularly true where the source of fuel gas 16 constituents varies because the gas turbine 12 is operated using fuel gas 16 from a variety of sources. This allows changes of fuel gas 16 to be implemented without lengthy delays to adjust the control system 28 when there is a switch in fuel gas 16.

The present invention reduces or eliminates megawatt load swings during such dynamic fuel events, by utilizing an integrated fuel gas characterization system 20. The integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 reduces the swings with a feed forward approach to adjusting operating parameters of the gas turbine engine 10 and utilization of a buffer tank 22.

The buffer tank 22 provides numerous advantages for the inventive integrated fuel gas characterization system 20. For example, when there is a change in the fuel gas 16 constituents, the buffer tank 22 mixes the new fuel gas 16 composition with the old fuel gas 16 composition, thereby reducing the rate of change in fuel gas 16 properties experienced by the gas turbine 12 and the resultant megawatt load swing and spike in exhaust stream 38 temperature. This same effect helps to minimize or eliminate the impact of transient spikes in the fuel gas 16 properties.

In addition, the buffer tank 22 can provide sufficient time for the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 to analyze several intermittent Wobbe Index and/or fuel gas constituent readings of the fuel gas 16 before the fuel gas 16 being measured reaches the combustion stage 18. The volume of the buffer tank 22 enables minimization or elimination of megawatt load swings because it allows the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 to implement operating parameter changes concurrently with, or prior to, when the change in fuel gas 16 composition reaches the combustion stage 18. In addition, the buffer period created by the buffer tank 22 allows the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 to identify and filter out transient fuel gas 16 composition spikes before gas turbine 12 operating parameters are adjusted. The buffer period also allows the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 to calculate the rate of change in the fuel gas 16 properties and adjust the gas turbine 12 operating parameters based on this rate of change, rather than the absolute value of the fuel gas 16 properties.

During gas turbine 12 start-up, the integrated fuel gas characterization system 20, can rely on gas chromatograph 26 analysis of the fuel gas 18 from prior to gas turbine 12 start-up. The integrated fuel gas characterization system 20 can utilize the results of the gas chromatograph 26 analysis of the fuel gas 18 to set operating parameters, which will improve gas turbine 12 start-up reliability as compared to conventional gas turbine 12 control systems. Operating parameters that are of particular relevance for gas turbine 12 start-up include, but are not limited to, ignition fuel mass flow setpoint and combustor fuel stage throttle valve ignition lifts.

The foregoing is provided for purposes of illustrating, explaining, and describing embodiments of this invention. Modifications and adaptations to these embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art and may be made without departing from the scope or spirit of this invention.

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Patent Valuation

11.0/100 Score

Market Attractiveness

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28.0/100 Score

Market Coverage

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58.0/100 Score

Technology Quality

It shows the degree of innovation that can be derived from a company’s IP. Here we look into ease of detection, ability to design around and significance of the patented feature to the product/service.

22.0/100 Score

Assignee Score

It takes the R&D behavior of the company itself into account that results in IP. During the invention phase, larger companies are considered to assign a higher R&D budget on a certain technology field, these companies have a better influence on their market, on what is marketable and what might lead to a standard.

18.0/100 Score

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Citation

Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
Fuel control system for a gas turbine engine ROLLS-ROYCE LIMITED, A BRITISH COMPANY 20 November 1980 26 April 1983
INTEGRATED FUEL GAS CHARACTERIZATION SYSTEM SIEMENS ENERGY, INC. 26 August 2008 04 March 2010
Wide range gaseous fuel combustion system for gas turbine engines SOLAR TURBINES INCORPORATED 02 March 1988 30 May 1989
Gas turbine engine control system GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, A CORP. OF NY 21 December 1988 19 February 1991
Gas turbine apparatus KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA 22 August 1986 05 April 1988
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SUPPLYING FUEL TO A GAS TURBINE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 18 October 2010 19 April 2012
OPERATING A TURBINE AT BASELOAD ON COLD FUEL WITH HOT FUEL COMBUSTION HARDWARE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 31 December 2008 01 July 2010
Methods and apparatus for operating gas turbine engine systems GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 05 February 2008 28 June 2011
Operating a turbine at baseload on cold fuel with hot fuel combustion hardware GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 31 December 2008 27 March 2012
TURBOMACHINE COMBUSTOR HAVING AN EXTERNALLY FUELED LATE LEAN INJECTION (LLI) SYSTEM GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 18 October 2013 23 April 2015
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