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Patent Analysis of

Components with micro cooled patterned coating layer and methods of manufacture

Updated Time 15 March 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US9562436

Application Number

US13/663989

Application Date

30 October 2012

Publication Date

07 February 2017

Current Assignee

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY

Original Assignee (Applicant)

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY,

International Classification

F01D5/14,C23C4/18,B05D1/32,B05D1/02,F01D5/28

Cooperative Classification

F01D5/18,B05D1/02,B05D3/06,B05D7/50,C23C4/01

Inventor

BUNKER, RONALD SCOTT,WEAVER, SCOTT ANDREW

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

Components with micro cooled patterned coating layer and methods of manufacture Components with micro cooled patterned coating layer and methods of manufacture Components with micro cooled patterned coating layer and methods of manufacture
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Abstract

A manufacturing method includes providing a substrate with an outer surface and at least one interior space, selectively deposited a coating on a portion of the substrate to form a selectively deposited coating having one or more grooves formed therein. The method further includes processing at least a portion of the surface of the selectively deposited coating to plastically deform the selectively deposited coating in the vicinity of the top of a respective groove. An additional coating is applied over at least a portion of the surface of the selectively deposited coating. A component is disclosed and includes a substrate, a selectively deposited coating disposed on at least a portion of the substrate, and defining one or more grooves therein, and an additional coating disposed over the selectively deposited coating. The substrate, the selectively deposited coating and the additional coating defining one or more channels for cooling the component.

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Claims

1. A manufacturing method comprising: providing a substrate with a continuous outer surface and at least one interior space; selectively depositing a coating on at least a portion of the continuous outer surface to define one or more grooves in the coating wherein each groove extends at least partially along the coating; processing at least a portion of a surface of the coating so as to plastically deform the coating at least in a vicinity of the top of a respective groove, such that a gap across the top of the respective groove is reduced; and applying one or more additional coatings over at least a portion of the surface of the coating, wherein the substrate, the coating and the one or more additional coatings define one or more channels for cooling a component.

2. The manufacturing method of claim 1, wherein selectively depositing a coating on at least a portion of the substrate includes selectively depositing the coating using one of a screen and a mask having defined therein a pattern and positioned between the substrate and a source of the coating.

3. The manufacturing method of claim 1, further comprising machining the deposited coating and a portion of the substrate to further define the one or more grooves.

4. The manufacturing method of claim 3, wherein the step of machining includes using one or more of an abrasive liquid jet, plunge electrochemical machining (ECM), electric discharge machining (EDM) with a spinning electrode (milling EDM), and laser machining.

5. The manufacturing method of claim 1, wherein processing the surface of the selectively deposited coating comprises performing one or more of shot peening the surface, water jet peening the surface, flapper peening the surface, gravity peening the surface, ultrasonic peening the surface, burnishing the surface, low plasticity burnishing the surface, and laser shock peening the surface, to plastically deform the coating at least in the vicinity of the respective groove.

6. The manufacturing method of claim 5, wherein the processing introduces a plurality of surface irregularities in the surface of the selectively deposited coating.

7. The manufacturing method of claim 5, wherein processing the surface of the selectively deposited coating comprises shot peening the surface.

8. The manufacturing method of claim 7, wherein shot peening the surface includes peening particles having a diameter greater than the gap across the top of the one or more grooves.

9. The manufacturing method of claim 1, wherein the gap across the top of the respective groove is in a range of about 0.2-1.0 mm prior to processing the surface of the coating, and wherein the gap across the top of the respective groove is in a range of about 0-0.4 mm after the surface of the coating has been processed.

10. The manufacturing method of claim 1, wherein the one or more additional coatings comprises one or more of an outer structural coating layer, a bond coating and a thermal barrier coating.

11. A manufacturing method comprising: providing a substrate with an outer surface and at least one interior space; selectively depositing a coating on at least a portion of the substrate to define one or more grooves in the coating wherein each groove extends at least partially along the coating; machining the coating and a portion of the substrate to further define the one or more grooves; processing at least a portion of a surface of the coating so as to plastically deform the coating at least in a vicinity of the top of a respective groove and facet the surface of the coating in a vicinity of the respective groove, such that the gap across a top of the respective groove is reduced; and applying one or more additional coatings over at least a portion of the surface of the coating, wherein the substrate, the coating and the one or more additional coatings define one or more channels for cooling a component.

12. The manufacturing method of claim 11, wherein selectively depositing a coating on at least a portion of the substrate includes selectively depositing the coating using one of a screen and a mask having defined therein a pattern and positioned between the substrate and a source of the coating.

13. The manufacturing method of claim 11, wherein processing the surface of the coating comprises performing one or more of shot peening the surface, water jet peening the surface, flapper peening the surface, gravity peening the surface, ultrasonic peening the surface, burnishing the surface, low plasticity burnishing the surface, and laser shock peening the surface, so as to deform the coating at least in a vicinity of the top of a respective groove and facet the surface of the coating in a vicinity of the respective groove, wherein said vicinity is adjacent to at least one edge of the respective groove.

14. The manufacturing method of claim 13, wherein processing the surface of the selectively deposited coating comprises shot peening the surface, and wherein the shot peening introduces a plurality of surface irregularities in the surface of the coating.

15. The manufacturing method of claim 14, wherein shot peening the surface includes peening particles having a diameter greater than the gap across the top of each of the one or more grooves.

16. The manufacturing method of claim 11, wherein the one or more additional coatings comprises one or more of an outer structural coating layer, a bond coating and a thermal barrier coating.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A manufacturing method comprising:
    • providing a substrate with a continuous outer surface and at least one interior space
    • selectively depositing a coating on at least a portion of the continuous outer surface to define one or more grooves in the coating wherein each groove extends at least partially along the coating
    • processing at least a portion of a surface of the coating so as to plastically deform the coating at least in a vicinity of the top of a respective groove, such that a gap across the top of the respective groove is reduced
    • and applying one or more additional coatings over at least a portion of the surface of the coating, wherein the substrate, the coating and the one or more additional coatings define one or more channels for cooling a component.
    • 2. The manufacturing method of claim 1, wherein
      • selectively depositing a coating on at least a portion of the substrate includes selectively depositing the coating using one of a screen and a mask having
    • 3. The manufacturing method of claim 1, further comprising
      • machining the deposited coating and a portion of the substrate to further define the one or more grooves.
    • 5. The manufacturing method of claim 1, wherein
      • processing the surface of the selectively deposited coating comprises
    • 9. The manufacturing method of claim 1, wherein
      • the gap across the top of the respective groove is in a range of about 0.2-1.0 mm prior to processing the surface of the coating, and wherein
    • 10. The manufacturing method of claim 1, wherein
      • the one or more additional coatings comprises
  • 11
    11. A manufacturing method comprising:
    • providing a substrate with an outer surface and at least one interior space
    • selectively depositing a coating on at least a portion of the substrate to define one or more grooves in the coating wherein each groove extends at least partially along the coating
    • machining the coating and a portion of the substrate to further define the one or more grooves
    • processing at least a portion of a surface of the coating so as to plastically deform the coating at least in a vicinity of the top of a respective groove and facet the surface of the coating in a vicinity of the respective groove, such that the gap across a top of the respective groove is reduced
    • and applying one or more additional coatings over at least a portion of the surface of the coating, wherein the substrate, the coating and the one or more additional coatings define one or more channels for cooling a component.
    • 12. The manufacturing method of claim 11, wherein
      • selectively depositing a coating on at least a portion of the substrate includes selectively depositing the coating using one of a screen and a mask having
    • 13. The manufacturing method of claim 11, wherein
      • processing the surface of the coating comprises
    • 16. The manufacturing method of claim 11, wherein
      • the one or more additional coatings comprises
See all 2 independent claims

Description

BACKGROUND

The disclosure relates generally to gas turbine engines, and, more specifically, to micro-channel cooling therein.

In a gas turbine engine, air is pressurized in a compressor and mixed with fuel in a combustor for generating hot combustion gases. Energy is extracted from the gases in a high pressure turbine (HPT), which powers the compressor, and in a low pressure turbine (LPT), which powers a fan in a turbofan aircraft engine application, or powers an external shaft for marine and industrial applications.

Engine efficiency increases with temperature of combustion gases. However, the combustion gases heat the various components along their flowpath, which in turn requires cooling thereof to achieve an acceptably long engine lifetime. Typically, the hot gas path components are cooled by bleeding air from the compressor. This cooling process reduces engine efficiency, as the bled air is not used in the combustion process.

Gas turbine engine cooling art is mature and includes numerous patents for various aspects of cooling circuits and features in the various hot gas path components. For example, the combustor includes radially outer and inner liners, which require cooling during operation. Turbine nozzles include hollow vanes supported between outer and inner bands, which also require cooling. Turbine rotor blades are hollow and typically include cooling circuits therein, with the blades being surrounded by turbine shrouds, which also require cooling. The hot combustion gases are discharged through an exhaust which may also be lined and suitably cooled.

In all of these exemplary gas turbine engine components, thin walls of high strength superalloy metals are typically used to reduce component weight and minimize the need for cooling thereof. Various cooling circuits and features are tailored for these individual components in their corresponding environments in the engine. For example, a series of internal cooling passages, or serpentines, may be formed in a hot gas path component. A cooling fluid may be provided to the serpentines from a plenum, and the cooling fluid may flow through the passages, cooling the hot gas path component substrate and any associated coatings. However, this cooling strategy typically results in comparatively inefficient heat transfer and non-uniform component temperature profiles.

Employing micro-channel cooling techniques has the potential to significantly reduce cooling requirements. Micro-channel cooling places the cooling as close as possible to the heat flux source, thus reducing the temperature difference between the hot side and cold side of the load bearing substrate material for a given heat transfer rate. However, current techniques provide for the forming of one or more grooves within a substrate layer with a subsequent application of one or more coating layers to bridge the one or more grooves and define the micro-channels. In many instances, forming the microchannels typically requires specialized techniques, such as, the use of sacrificial fillers, re-entrant grooves, angular deposition techniques, or the like. The use of sacrificial fillers keeps the coating from being deposited within the microchannels while supporting the coating during deposition. Subsequent to deposition of the coating system, the sacrificial filler (fugitive) material is removed. The filling of the channels with a fugitive material, and the later removal of that material presents potential problems for current micro-channel processing techniques. Removal of the sacrificial filler involves potentially damaging processes of leaching etching, or vaporization and typically requires long times. Residual filler material is also a concern. Other micro-channel coating deposition techniques include the fabrication of re-entrant grooves, in which a groove opening at the surface is small enough that the coating particles form a bridge with little or no deposition being deposited inside the groove, and thus within the formed micro-channel. In addition, angular deposition techniques have been utilized for the coating deposition thereby decreasing the line-of-sight into the channel opening. These techniques while providing for the deposition of the coating layer may require complex machining techniques, strict tolerances, and may inadvertently allow unwanted coating particles to be deposited into the micro-channels or channel openings.

It would therefore be desirable to provide a method for forming cooling channels in hot gas path components that provide for reduced fabrication time and techniques.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

One aspect of the present disclosure resides in a manufacturing method that includes providing a substrate with an outer surface and at least one interior space; selectively depositing a coating on at least a portion of the substrate to define one or more grooves in the coating wherein each groove extends at least partially along the coating; processing at least a portion of a surface of the coating so as to plastically deform the coating at least in a vicinity of the top of a respective groove, such that a gap across a top of the groove is reduced; and applying one or more additional coatings over at least a portion of the surface of the coating. The substrate, the coating and the additional coating define one or more channels for cooling a component.

Another aspect of the present disclosure resides in a manufacturing method that includes providing a substrate with an outer surface and at least one interior space; selectively depositing a coating on at least a portion of the substrate to define one or more grooves in the coating wherein each groove extends at least partially along the coating; machining one or more of the selectively deposited coating and a portion of the substrate to further define the one or more grooves; processing at least a portion of a surface of the coating so as to plastically deform the coating at least in a vicinity of the top of a respective groove and facet the surface of the structural coating in a vicinity of the groove, such that a gap across a top of the groove is reduced; and applying one or more additional coatings over at least a portion of the surface of the coating, wherein the substrate, the coating and the additional coating define one or more channels for cooling a component.

Yet another aspect of the present disclosure resides in a component that includes a substrate comprising an outer surface and an inner surface, wherein the inner surface defines at least one interior space; a coating selectively deposited on at least a portion of the substrate, wherein the selectively deposited coating defines one or more grooves therein, wherein each groove extends at least partially along the outer surface of the selectively deposited coating, wherein a surface of the selectively deposited coating is faceted in a vicinity of the respective groove, and wherein one or more supply holes are formed through the base of a respective groove and the substrate, to connect the groove in fluid communication with the supply respective interior space; and an additional coating disposed over at least a portion of the selectively deposited coating, wherein the substrate, the selectively deposited coating and the additional coating together define one or more channels for cooling the component.

Various refinements of the features noted above exist in relation to the various aspects of the present disclosure. Further features may also be incorporated in these various aspects as well. These refinements and additional features may exist individually or in any combination. For instance, various features discussed below in relation to one or more of the illustrated embodiments may be incorporated into any of the above-described aspects of the present disclosure alone or in any combination. Again, the brief summary presented above is intended only to familiarize the reader with certain aspects and contexts of the present disclosure without limitation to the claimed subject matter.

DRAWINGS

These and other features, aspects, and advantages of the present disclosure will become better understood when the following detailed description is read with reference to the accompanying drawings in which like characters represent like parts throughout the drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of a gas turbine system according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein

FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-section of an example airfoil configuration with cooling channels, according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 3A schematically depicts a step in a method disclosed herein including the selective deposition of a coating layer on a substrate according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 3B schematically depicts an alternate embodiment of a step in a method disclosed herein including the selective deposition of a coating layer on a substrate according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 4A schematically depicts a step in a method disclosed herein including machining the coating layer to further define one or more grooves according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 4B schematically depicts an alternate embodiment of a step in a method disclosed herein including machining the coating layer and a portion of the substrate to further define one or more grooves according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 5A schematically depicts a step in a method disclosed herein including forming one or more cooling supply holes according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 5B schematically depicts an alternate embodiment of a step in a method disclosed herein including forming one or more cooling supply holes according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 6 schematically depicts a step in a method disclosed herein including a surface treatment that introduces irregularities in the treated surface according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 7 schematically depicts a step in a method disclosed herein including depositing a coating on the treated surface according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 8A schematically depicts a step in a method disclosed herein including forming one or more cooling holes according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 8B schematically depicts an alternate embodiment of a step in a method disclosed herein including forming one or more cooling holes according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 9 schematically depicts, in perspective view, three example micro-channels that extend partially within a coating layer and convey coolant to respective film cooling holes according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein;

FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view of the one or more cooling channels of FIG. 9 with the opening size reduced after a surface treatment and deposition of an additional coating material according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein; and

FIG. 11 is a flow chart depicting one implementation of a method of making a component including surface cooling channels according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The terms “first,”“second,” and the like, herein do not denote any order, quantity, or importance, but rather are used to distinguish one element from another. The terms “a” and “an” herein do not denote a limitation of quantity, but rather denote the presence of at least one of the referenced items. The modifier “about” used in connection with a quantity is inclusive of the stated value, and has the meaning dictated by context, (e.g., includes the degree of error associated with measurement of the particular quantity). In addition, the term “combination” is inclusive of blends, mixtures, alloys, reaction products, and the like.

Moreover, in this specification, the suffix “(s)” is usually intended to include both the singular and the plural of the term that it modifies, thereby including one or more of that term (e.g., “the passage hole” may include one or more passage holes, unless otherwise specified). Reference throughout the specification to “one embodiment,”“another embodiment,”“an embodiment,” and so forth, means that a particular element (e.g., feature, structure, and/or characteristic) described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment described herein, and may or may not be present in other embodiments. Similarly, reference to “a particular configuration” means that a particular element (e.g., feature, structure, and/or characteristic) described in connection with the configuration is included in at least one configuration described herein, and may or may not be present in other configurations. In addition, it is to be understood that the described inventive features may be combined in any suitable manner in the various embodiments and configurations.

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a gas turbine system 10. The system 10 may include one or more compressors 12, combustors 14, turbines 16, and fuel nozzles 20. The compressor 12 and turbine 16 may be coupled by one or more shafts 18. The shaft 18 may be a single shaft or multiple shaft segments coupled together to form shaft 18.

The gas turbine system 10 may include a number of hot gas path components. A hot gas path component is any component of the system 10 that is at least partially exposed to a flow of high temperature gas through the system 10. For example, bucket assemblies (also known as blades or blade assemblies), nozzle assemblies (also known as vanes or vane assemblies), shroud assemblies, transition pieces, retaining rings, and turbine exhaust components are all hot gas path components. However, it should be understood that the hot gas path component of the present disclosure is not limited to the above examples, but may be any component that is at least partially exposed to a flow of high temperature gas. Further, it should be understood that the hot gas path component of the present disclosure is not limited to components in gas turbine systems 10, but may be any piece of machinery or component thereof that may be exposed to high temperature flows.

When a hot gas path component is exposed to a hot gas flow, the hot gas path component is heated by the hot gas flow and may reach a temperature at which the hot gas path component is substantially degraded or fails. Thus, in order to allow system 10 to operate with hot gas flow at a high temperature, as required to achieve the desired efficiency, performance and/or life of the system 10, a cooling system for the hot gas path component is needed.

In general, the cooling system of the present disclosure includes a series of small channels, or micro-channels, formed in a protective coating layer of the hot gas path component. The hot gas path component may include one or more grooves formed in the coating layer and an additional coating layer to bridge there over the one or more, and form the micro-channels, also referred to herein as cooling channels. For industrial sized power generating turbine components, “small” or “micro” channel dimensions would encompass approximate depths and widths in the range of 0.25 mm to 1.5 mm, while for aviation sized turbine components channel dimensions would encompass approximate depths and widths in the range of 0.1 mm to 0.5 mm. A cooling fluid may be provided to the channels from a plenum, and the cooling fluid may flow through the channels, cooling the hot gas path component.

Referring now to FIG. 2, illustrated is an example of a hot gas component 30 having an airfoil configuration. As indicated, the component 30 comprises a substrate 32 with an outer surface 34 and an inner surface 36. The inner surface 36 of the substrate 32 defines at least one hollow, interior space 38. In an alternate embodiment, in lieu of a hollow interior space, the hot gas component 30 may include a supply cavity. A coating 42 is selectively deposited over at least a portion of the outer surface 34 of the substrate 32 using a screen, a mask, or other means for achieving such selective deposition (and as presently described). Defined within the coating 42 are one or more cooling channels 40. Each of the cooling channels 40 extends at least partially within the coating 42 and in fluidic communication via one or more cooling supply holes 43 with the at least one hollow, interior space 38. The cooling supply holes 43 are configured as discrete openings and do not run the length of the respective cooling channels 40. The coating 42 is selectively disposed over at least a portion of the outer surface 34 of the substrate 32, to define therein the one or more grooves (described presently), that in combination with the substrate 32 and the at least one additional coating (described presently) form the cooling channels 40.

As described below, the method disclosed herein includes selective deposition and machining techniques to create a three-dimensional finished component 30, and more particularly the airfoil, including a plurality of cooling channels 40. The method may result in a component 30 that includes near transpiration cooling without the necessity of using porous materials of diminished strength. The cooling channels 40 may be arbitrary, or specifically targeted for location and size, and as such flexible in design. Re-entrant shaped cooling channels typically utilized to minimize deposition of the coating within the channel structure are not required, resulting in a decrease in machining time and relaxation of design tolerances. In addition, repair of the component 30 is easier, both in recovering mistakes on new part manufacture and in full repair.

As previously indicated, an exemplary embodiment fabricated according to the method disclosed herein is the fabrication of a gas turbine airfoil, including an interior hollow passageway in fluidic communication with a plurality of cooling channels formed within a coating disposed on a substrate of the component.

A method of manufacturing the component 30 is described with reference to FIGS. 3-11. As indicated for example in FIGS. 3A and 3B, the manufacturing method includes selectively depositing a coating 42, also referred to herein as a structural coating, via a means for achieving selective deposition 47, on the outer surface 34 of the substrate 32. In an embodiment, the selective deposition of the coating 42 is accomplished by employing an intermediate screen 44, such as that illustrated in FIG. 3A, or a mask 45, such as that illustrated in FIG. 3B. In an embodiment the means for selective deposition 47 is disposed between a coating “cloud”46 or spray and the outer surface 34 of substrate 32. The term “coating cloud” as used herein refers to a plasma or plume which emanates from the surface of the material being deposited. As best illustrated in FIG. 3A, the means for selective deposition 47, and more particularly the screen 44 is spaced a distance from the outer surface 34 of the substrate 32. In an alternate embodiment, as best illustrated in FIG. 3B, the means for selective deposition 47, and more particularly the illustrated masking 45, may be positioned proximate the outer surface 34 of the substrate 32, but not in contact with the surface 34 of the substrate. In addition, in the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 3B, the substrate 32 may be provided having one or more grooves 49 partially formed in the substrate 32 prior to selective deposition of the coating 42 thereon. While specific embodiments have been described herein, it should be understood that any combination of the above configurations is anticipated by the disclosure.

Patterns in the means for selective deposition 47, and the resultant selectively deposited coating 42 may be formed in a grid-like manner or in any arbitrary geometry, including curved grooves, as long as dimensional requirements are maintained. In an exemplary embodiment, the means for selective deposition 47 may be provided as a simple grid pattern, or line pattern, dependent upon desired final cooling channel configuration. The screen 44 or mask 45 is configured to define on the substrate 32 a plurality of selected regions to receive the coating 42 and a plurality of selected regions to be denied the coating 42. During the selective deposition process, the means for selective deposition 47, and more particularly the screen 44 or mask 45, collects the coating 42 for the portions of the substrate 32 that will later become the cooling channels 40 or cooling features.

In an embodiment, the coating material 42 is deposited to a depth of approximately 0.030″, although it should be understood that the thickness of the coating 42 is design dependent and dictated by desired resulting cooling feature size. In an embodiment, subsequent to deposition, the coating material 42 is heat treated.

As shown in alternate embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 4A and 4B, the manufacturing method may optionally include further refinement of the selectively deposited coating layer 42. More specifically, the selectively deposited coating layer 42 may next be machined to further define the one or more grooves 48 (which partially define the channels 40 in FIG. 2) in the coating 42 deposited on the substrate 32. As best illustrated in FIG. 4A. In the illustrated embodiment, during this step to further define the one or more grooves 48, the coating 42 may be selectively removed by machining 42, without penetrating into the substrate 32. In an alternate embodiment, as best illustrated in FIG. 4B, the one or more grooves 48 may be further defined by machining the coating 42 and extending into a portion of the substrate 32 prior to further processing of the coating 42. As indicated, for example, in FIG. 9, each groove 48 extends at least partially along the coating 42.

As best illustrated in FIGS. 5A, 5B and 9, one or more cooling supply holes 43 connect the one or more grooves 48 to the respective interior spaces 38. As shown in FIG. 2, the substrate 32 has at least one interior space 38 (FIG. 2). It should be noted that the cooling supply holes 47, shown in FIG. 9, are discrete holes located in the cross-section shown and do not extend through the substrate 32 along the length of the one or more grooves 48. The cooling supply holes 43 may be machined anywhere and in any desired pattern connecting the one or more grooves 48 to the respective interior spaces 38. The supply cooling holes 47 may be formed at normal angle relevant to the local surface, such as the outer surface 34 of the substrate 32, as best illustrated in FIG. 5A or at an acute angle to the local surface, such as the outer surface 34 of the substrate 32, as best illustrated in FIG. 5B. In an embodiment the supply cooling holes 43 may be machined through the remaining applied coating features, and more particularly through at least a portion of the coating 42.

The substrate 32 is typically a cast structure, as discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,626,462, Melvin R. Jackson et al., “Double-wall airfoil,” which is incorporated herein in its entirety. The substrate 32 may be formed from any suitable material. Depending on the intended application for component 30, this could include Ni-base, Co-base and Fe-base superalloys. The Ni-base superalloys may be those containing both γ and γ′ phases, particularly those Ni-base superalloys containing both γ and γ′ phases wherein the γ′ phase occupies at least 40% by volume of the superalloy. Such alloys are known to be advantageous because of a combination of desirable properties including high temperature strength and high temperature creep resistance. The substrate material may also comprise a NiAl intermetallic alloy, as these alloys are also known to possess a combination of superior properties including high-temperature strength and high temperature creep resistance that are advantageous for use in turbine engine applications used for aircraft. In the case of Nb-base alloys, coated Nb-base alloys having superior oxidation resistance will be preferred, particularly those alloys comprising Nb-(27-40)Ti-(4.5-10.5)Al-(4.5-7.9)Cr-(1.5-5.5)Hf-(0-6)V, where the composition ranges are in atom percent. The substrate material may also comprise a Nb-base alloy that contains at least one secondary phase, such as a Nb-containing intermetallic compound comprising a silicide, carbide or boride. Such alloys are composites of a ductile phase (i.e., the Nb-base alloy) and a strengthening phase (i.e., a Nb-containing intermetallic compound). For other arrangements, the substrate material comprises a molybdenum based alloy, such as alloys based on molybdenum (solid solution) with Mo5SiB2 and/or Mo3Si second phases. For other configurations, the substrate material comprises a ceramic matrix composite (CMC), such as a silicon carbide (SiC) matrix reinforced with SiC fibers. For other configurations the substrate material comprises a TiAl-based intermetallic compound.

The selectively deposited coating 42 may be applied or deposited using a variety of techniques. For particular processes, the coating 42 may be deposited by performing ion plasma deposition (also known in the art as cathodic arc deposition). Example ion plasma deposition apparatus and method are provided in commonly assigned, U.S. Pat. No. 7,879,203, Weaver et al., “Method and Apparatus for Cathodic Arc Ion Plasma Deposition,” which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. Briefly, with regard to the present disclosure, ion plasma deposition comprises placing a consumable cathode having a composition to produce the desired coating material within a vacuum chamber, providing the substrate 32 within the vacuum environment, positioning the means for selective deposition 47 (screen 44 or mask 45) relative to the substrate 32 and the cathode, supplying a current to the cathode to form a cathodic arc upon a cathode surface resulting in arc-induced erosion of coating material from the cathode surface, and depositing the coating material from the cathode upon the surface 34 of the substrate 32.

Non-limiting examples of a coating deposited using ion plasma deposition are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,626,462. For certain hot gas path components, the coating comprises a nickel-based or cobalt-based alloy, and more particularly comprises a superalloy or a (Ni,Co)CrAlY alloy. Where the substrate material is a Ni-base superalloy containing both γ and γ′ phases, coating may comprise similar compositions of materials, as discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,626,462. Additionally, for superalloys the coating may comprise compositions based on the γ′-Ni3Al family of alloys.

For other process configurations, the coating 42 is selectively deposited by performing at least one of a thermal spray process and a cold spray process. For example, the thermal spray process may comprise combustion spraying or plasma spraying, the combustion spraying may comprise high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF) or high velocity air fuel spraying (HVAF), and the plasma spraying may comprise atmospheric (such as air or inert gas) plasma spray, or low pressure plasma spray (LPPS, which is also known as vacuum plasma spray or VPS). In one non-limiting example, a (Ni,Co)CrAlY coating is selectively deposited by HVOF or HVAF. Other example techniques for selectively depositing the coating 42 include, without limitation, sputtering, electron beam physical vapor deposition, entrapment plating, and electroplating.

The one or more grooves 48 may be configured having any of a number of different shapes. For the example configuration shown in FIGS. 3A, 3B, 5A and 6-8B, the one or more grooves 48 are substantially rectangular in cross-section. For the example configuration shown in FIGS. 4A, 4B and 5B, the one or more grooves 48 are provided having angled sidewalls. Although in both instances the one or more grooves 48 are shown as having substantially straight walls, the one or more grooves 48 may have any wall configuration, for example, they may be straight or curved.

As indicated, with regard to FIGS. 4A and 4B, subsequent to selective deposition of the coating 42, the one or more defined grooves 48 and the substrate 32 may optionally be further defined using a variety of techniques. Example techniques for further defining the one or more grooves 48 include an abrasive liquid jet, plunge electrochemical machining (ECM), electric discharge machining (EDM) with a spinning electrode (milling EDM), and/or laser machining Example laser machining techniques are described in commonly assigned, U.S. Pat. No. 8,857,055, B. Wei et al., “Process and System for Forming Shaped Air Holes”, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. Example EDM techniques are described in commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 8,905,713, R. Bunker et al., “Articles Which Include Chevron Film Cooling Holes and Related Processes,” which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

For particular processes, the one or more grooves 48 may be further defined and the cooling supply holes 43 formed using an abrasive liquid jet 41 (FIGS. 4 and 5A/5B). Example abrasive liquid jet drilling processes and systems are additionally provided in U.S. Pat. No. 8,905,713. As explained in U.S. Pat. No. 8,905,713, the abrasive liquid jet process typically utilizes a high-velocity stream of abrasive particles (e.g., abrasive “grit”), suspended in a stream of high pressure water. The pressure of the liquid may vary considerably, but is often in the range of about 35-620 MPa. A number of abrasive materials can be used, such as garnet, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and glass beads. Beneficially, the capability of abrasive liquid jet machining techniques facilitates the removal of material in stages to varying depths and with control over the shape of the machined features. This allows the one or more interior cooling supply holes 43 that supply the one or more channels 40 to be drilled either as a straight hole of constant cross section, a shaped hole (e.g., elliptical), or a converging or diverging hole (not shown).

In addition, and as explained in U.S. Pat. No. 8,905,713, the water jet system may include a multi-axis computer numerically controlled (CNC) unit (not shown). The CNC systems themselves are known in the art, and described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 7,351,290, S. Rutkowski et al., “Robotic Pen”, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. CNC systems allow movement of the cutting tool along a number of X, Y, and Z axes, as well as the tilt axes.

For the embodiments depicted in FIGS. 3-11, the manufacturing method further includes processing at least a portion of a surface 50 of the selectively deposited coating 42 to plastically deform the coating 42 at least in a vicinity of a top of a respective groove 48. The resulting processed coating 42 is shown, for example, in FIGS. 6 and 7. A gap 52 present across the top of each of the one or more grooves 48 is reduced as a result of the processing, as indicated in FIG. 6, for example. Thus, processing the surface 50, affects a permanent deformation of the coating material 42. Beneficially, by reducing the gap 52 across the tops of the grooves 48, the manufacturing method improves the ability of one or more additional deposited coatings to bridge the opening directly (that is, without the use of a sacrificial filler), as indicated in FIGS. 7 and 8A/8B, for example. In addition, by reducing the gap 52 across the top of each of the one or more grooves 48, the manufacturing method facilitates the use of a less stringent machining specification for the width across the top of each of the one or more grooves 48. Beneficially, by reducing this machining specification, the manufacturing method may reduce the machining cost for the channels. Additionally, by plastically deforming the coating 42, localized plastic deformation of the substrate 32, which can lead to undesired recrystallization of the structural superalloy substrate, may be reduced or prevented.

As previously indicated, the manufacturing method may further optionally include preheating the substrate 32 prior to or during the deposition of the coating 42. Further, the manufacturing method may further optionally include heat treating (for example vacuum heat treating at 1100° C. for two hours) the component 30 after the coating 42 has been selectively deposited and prior to processing the surface of the coating 42 as described with regard to FIG. 6. Thus, the step of processing the surface 50 of the coating 42 can be pre- or post-heat treatment. These heat treating options may improve the adhesion of the coating 42 to the substrate 32 and/or increase the ductility of the coating 42, both facilitating the processing of the substrate 32, having the coating 42 deposited thereon, so as to plastically deform the coating 42 and reduce the gap 52 across the top of the groove 48. In addition, the manufacturing method may further optionally include performing one or more grit blast operations. For example, the surface of the substrate 32 may optionally be grit blast prior to applying the coating 42. In addition, the processed coating surface 50 may optionally be subjected to a grit blast, so as to improve the adherence of a subsequently deposited additional coating (described presently). Grit blast operations would typically be performed after heat treatment, rather than immediately prior to heat treatment.

Commonly assigned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/242,179, R. Bunker et al., “Components with Cooling Channels and Methods of Manufacture”, filed Sep. 23, 2011, applies similar processing to the substrate 32. However, by processing the coating 42, the above described method is advantageous, in that the coating 42 may be more ductile than the substrate 32 and therefore more amenable to plastic deformation. In addition, defects induced in the coating 42 by the deformation process will affect a lower mechanical debit of the coated component and may be healed more readily than those in the substrate 32 during subsequent heat treatment. The system having a coating 42 can therefore be deformed to a greater degree using the above-described method than can the uncoated substrate using the method of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/242,179. In addition, by limiting the deformation to the coating 42 only, this may also avoid recrystallization of the substrate 32 (relative to the method of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/242,179), leading to improved mechanical properties under cyclic loading.

Although not expressly shown, for particular applications, the processing of the surface 50 of coating 42 reduces the gap 52 in the coating 42 in the vicinity of the top of each of the one or more grooves 48. As used here, “reduces the gap” means that the gap width after processing is less than that before processing. For particular configurations, the processing may geometrically close the opening, where “geometrically closed” means the coating 42 is brought in close proximity with coating 42 from the opposing side of the groove opening substantially closing the gap 52. Thus, as used here, being geometrically closed is not equivalent to being metallurgically bonded. However, for certain process configurations, a metallurgical bond may in fact form. Beneficially, reducing the size of the gap 52, further improves the ability of one or more additional deposited coatings to bridge the opening directly.

The surface 50 of the coating 42 may be processed using one or more of a variety of techniques, including without limitation, shot peening the surface 50, water jet peening the surface 50, flapper peening the surface 50, gravity peening the surface 50, ultrasonic peening the surface 50, burnishing the surface 50, low-plasticity burnishing the surface 50, and laser shock peening the surface 50, to plastically deform the coating 42 (and possibly also a portion of the substrate 32) at least in the vicinity of the groove 48, such that the gap 52 across the top of each of the one or more grooves 48 is reduced. In an embodiment, a mask may be employed to prevent the peening from impacting any portion of the substrate 32 that are not coated by the coating 42. When employed, the mask may subsequently be removed by means such as leaching or mechanical breakup.

For particular processes, the surface 50 of the coating 42 is processed by shot peening. As indicated in FIG. 6, for example, shot peening typically introduces a number of surface irregularities 56 in the surface 50 of the coating 42. During the peening process, the cooling pattern dimensions, and more particularly a dimension of each of the gaps 52 across the one or more grooves 48, must be less than the shot diameter. It is anticipated, in an embodiment, to maintain differing regions of size on the part, differing shot sizes for peening may be utilized. Beneficially, the surface irregularities may aid in the bridging of one or more additional coatings deposited over the surface 50, and especially coatings deposited using processes, such as ion plasma deposition, electron beam physical vapor deposition, and sputtering.

For other processes, the surface 50 of the coating 42 may be processed by burnishing. A variety of burnishing techniques may be employed, depending on the material being surface treated and on the desired deformation. Non-limiting examples of burnishing techniques include plastically massaging the surface 50 of the coating 42, for example using rollers, pins, or balls, and low plasticity burnishing.

The gap 52 across the top of each of the one or more grooves 48 will vary based on the specific application. However, for certain configurations, the gap 52 across the top of each of the one or more grooves 48 is in a range of about 8-40 mil (0.2-1.0 mm) prior to processing the surface 50 of the coating 42, and the gap 52 across the top of each of the one or more grooves 48 is in a range of about 0-15 mil (0-0.4 mm) after processing the surface 50 of the coating 42.

For particular configurations, the step of processing the surface 50 of the coating 42 deforms the coating surface 50, such as “mushrooms” the coating 42 so as to form “facets”, in the vicinity of each of the one or more grooves 48. As used herein, “faceting” should be understood to tilt the surface 50 in the vicinity of the groove 48 toward the groove 48, as indicated, for example, in the circled region in FIG. 6. Subsequent to deforming the selectively deposited coating 42 as described, an optional heating treating step may be employed at this stage, prior to deposition of any additional coating layer(s).

As indicated, for example, in FIGS. 7 and 10, the manufacturing method further includes disposing an additional coating 54 over at least a portion of the surface 50 of the coating 42 to provide bridging of the gap 52. It should be noted that this additional coating 54 may comprise one or more different coating layers. For example, the coating 54 may include an additional structural coating and/or optional additional coating layer(s), such as bond coatings, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and oxidation-resistant coatings. For particular configurations, the additional coating 54 comprises an outer structural coating layer. As indicated, for example, in FIG. 7, the substrate 32, the selectively deposited coating 42 and the additional coating 54 define each of the one or more cooling channels 40 for cooling the component 30.

For particular configurations, the coating 42 and additional coating 54 have a combined thickness in the range of 0.1-2.0 millimeters, and more particularly, in the range of 0.2 to 1 millimeter, and still more particularly 0.2 to 0.5 millimeters for industrial components. For aviation components, this range is typically 0.1 to 0.25 millimeters. However, other thicknesses may be utilized depending on the requirements for a particular component 30.

The additional coating layer(s) 54 may be deposited using a variety of techniques. Example deposition techniques for forming coatings are provided above. In addition to structural coatings, bond coatings, TBCs and oxidation-resistant coatings may also be deposited using the above-noted techniques.

For certain configurations, it is desirable to employ multiple deposition techniques for selectively depositing the coating 42 and depositing the additional coating 54. For example, the coating 42 may be selectively deposited using an ion plasma deposition, and a subsequently deposited additional coating layer may be deposited using other techniques, such as a combustion thermal spray process or a plasma spray process. Likewise, multiple deposition techniques for depositing a plurality of additional coating 54 layers may be employed. Depending on the materials used, the use of different deposition techniques for the coating layers may provide benefits in properties, such as, but not restricted to: strain tolerance, strength, adhesion, and/or ductility.

As indicated in FIGS. 8A and 8B, subsequent to the deposition of the coating 54 (and any other coatings such as ceramic coatings are applied), to complete the cooling pattern, one or more cooling holes 58 may be machined through the top coatings, including the additional coating 54 (and any subsequently deposited coatings) again in any locations and pattern desired as long as the one or more cooling holes 58 provide fluid communication with the cooling pattern, and more particularly for the one or more cooling channels 40. The one or more cooling holes 58 may again be normal to a local surface (as previously described), as best illustrated in FIG. 8A, or angled, include shaping etc. As needed, a portion 59 of the one or more cooling holes 58 may also be machined through the substrate 32, as best illustrated in FIG. 8B, to communicate directly with the interior region 38 of the component 30.

Referring now to FIG. 11, illustrated is a flow chart depicting one implementation of a method 60 of making a component 30 including one or more cooling channels 40 according to one or more embodiments shown or described herein. The method 60 includes manufacturing the component 30 to ultimately include one or more cooling channels 40 by initially providing a substrate 32 and selectively depositing a coating 42, at step 62. The selective deposition of the coating 42 includes patterns that may be configured in a grid-like geometry or in any arbitrary geometry, including a curved geometry, as long as dimensional requirements are maintained. The coating 42 may optionally be heat treated prior to further processing steps, or during the fabrication steps. Next, at step 64, the coating 42 is optionally machined to selectively remove portions of the selectively deposited coating 42 and further define the one or more grooves 48, with or without penetrating into the substrate 32. The one or more cooling supply holes 43 are next defined in the substrate 32 in a machining step 66. The one or more cooling supply holes 43 are provided in fluidic communication with the interior space 38. The surface 50 of the coating 42 is next treated, such as in a shot peening process step 68, to deform, and more particularly, “mushroom” the surface 50 of the coating 42 and narrow the gap 52 of the one or more grooves 48. An additional coating 54 is next deposited, in a step 70, on the treated surface 50 of the coating 42 to close the gap 52 and define the one or more cooling channels 40. Finally, in a step 72, one or more cooling holes 58 are machined in the coating 54. The one or more cooling holes 58 are machined in any locations and pattern in the coating 54 to provide fluid communication with the cooling pattern. After processing, provided is the component 30 including the interior space passageway 38, the one or more cooling supply holes 43 in fluidic communication with the interior passageway 38 and one or more cooling channels 40 formed in a selectively deposited coating 42 and in fluidic communication with the one or more cooling supply holes 43. It should be understood that the cooling holes 48 can take on many alternate forms, including exit trenches that may connect the cooling exits of several cooling channels. Exit trenches are described in commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 8,727,727, R. Bunker et al., “Components with Cooling Channels and Methods of Manufacture,” which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

Beneficially, the above described manufacturing methods can affect complete or partial closure of the gap 52 in each of the one or more grooves 48 formed in the coating 42 by processing the surface 50 of the coating 42, so as to plastically deform it. This, in turn, facilitates bridging of the gap 52 by the additional coating 54. This provides a more uniform coating in terms of micro-structure and strength when applied over a processed coating.

Although only certain features of the disclosure have been illustrated and described herein, many modifications and changes will occur to those skilled in the art. It is, therefore, to be understood that the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications and changes as fall within the true spirit of the disclosure.

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15.28/100 Score

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66.99/100 Score

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94.0/100 Score

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